The heat generated by the sub-surface of the earth is called geothermal energy. It is found in rocks or fluids below the lower surface of the ground or hot lava or magma located on the lower surface of the earth. People can capture this geothermal energy from geothermal power plants or geothermal heat pumps.
Geothermal power plants are used to generate electricity by absorbing heat from the lower surface of the earth, and geothermal heat pumps are used to keep the water near the surface warm or provide heat to buildings. Apart from buildings, the energy can also be used to heat other structures such as parking slots, crosswalks.
Most of the earth’s geothermal energy remains in the form of water, steam, or magma. It is more efficient and cost-effective than burning fossil fuels, and geothermal plants are more reliable because they can run 24×7 and 365 days continuously.
Advantages of geothermal energy:
It has many advantages
It is beneficial for the environment:
Geothermal energy is extracted from the earth without burning fossil fuels, and there is no emission of any kind from geothermal fields. It is beneficial because by using this energy, you can save up to 80 percent. About 26 countries in the world make use of this energy.
It is a reliable source of renewable energy:
Geothermal energy has more benefits than other renewable energy sources like biomass, wind, or solar. It has a constant source because it is not dependent on the sun, wind, or it can be available all year long.
Geothermal power plants or pumps use 25-40 % less electricity than any other conventional system. They can adjust to different situations due to their flexible design and require less space than a conventional system.
Geothermal systems require less maintenance as they have only a few movable parts. Geothermal heat pipes have a warranty of 25-50 years, while the pump can last for up to 20 years.
Disadvantages of Geothermal energy:
Everything on earth comes with some benefits and some losses. Geothermal energy also has some disadvantages.
Concern for greenhouse emission:
When geothermal energy is extracted (Methane, Ammonia, Carbon-di-oxide, and Hydrogen sulfide) from the earth, some gases are released, which are harmful to the environment.
Depletion of geothermal sources:
Despite this energy is renewable, after some time that specific places may cool down, and then it will be difficult to extract energy from those places. In non-depletable options, only magma is available, but no concrete method of extracting this energy from magma has been successful so far.
Another disadvantage of geothermal energy is that it requires high investment to install its complex system into one’s home. But the return in such type of things is very promising, invested money can be earned between 2 to 10 years.
Land requirements to be installed:
A piece of land next to the house is required to set up a geothermal system. Without implementing any vertical sources as heat pumps, it is not possible to implement geothermal systems for homeowners in big cities.