A step-by-step guide to content analysis
Before dwelling into the details of content analysis, let us understand what it means. This is a research technique that helps identify patterns in recorded communication. It analyses the features of data be it a word, picture, theme, or text. This data can be collected from various sources such as books, newspapers, seminars, or photographs.
Content analysis is both qualitative and quantitative. In both these methods, a researcher can categorize words or concepts within the text and further analyze the results.
What is the use of this research technique?
Researches use this methodology to identify the purpose and effects that this content has on people. It also helps researchers draw conclusions about the producers and audience of the texts under scrutiny.
This research methodology can also be used to measure the number of times certain words or phrases appear within a text.
To understand quantitative content analysis here is an example: To identify the importance of gender issues in the workplace, a researcher can analyze induction speeches given by managers to find the frequency of terms such as gender-biased, gender-neutral, and much more. The semantic relationship of words can also be analyzed using this technique.
To understand the qualitative analysis here is an example: If a researcher wants to understand the qualitative aspect of gender issues in the workplace, the researcher could locate the word gender in meetings or interviews and identify other words that are used along with gender. For instance, the word ‘inequality’ being used next to the word ‘gender’.
Content analysis has its applications in a broad range of fields that include marketing, anthropology, cognitive science, and many other scientific disciplines. This methodology has numerous goals, a few of them being:
· Reducing huge amounts of unstructured content
· Elaborating the features of content such as words, text, pictures, or films
· Identifying key aspects of the communicated content
· Analyzing bias in communication and revealing their differences
· Identifying the effects that the communicated content has on its audience
Some of the advantages of content analysis are:
· With this analysis method, researchers are closer to their data sources. They can easily collect data without any form of direct involvement.
· This methodology is easily understood and provides an insight into the complex models of human thinking.
· Enables important historical as well as cultural insights to researchers
· When combined with other research tools such as interviews or observations, analyzing content becomes trouble-free.
· This research methodology is transparent and reliable. It is easy for other researchers to replicate the procedure.
Some of the disadvantages of this research methodology are:
· It focuses solely on certain words and can restrict a researcher from understanding the full concept of the text. This becomes reductive at times.
· As a researcher is conducting the analysis, this methodology is highly subjective. The researchers’ point of view and interpretation is bound to influence the audience.
· It takes a lot of time to compile large amounts of data and analyze them effectively.
· It becomes tedious to automate at times.
A step-by-step method to conduct a successful content analysis:
· Identification of the research question and collection of appropriate data: Researchers need to have a fixed research question on their mind and then look-into various sources from where they can collect this data.
· Establish coding categories: Further, researchers carry out systemized observation based on certain rules. These rules give the framework for coding the content.
· Define a set of rules for coding the chosen content: Researchers need to observe content and give each category a unique code. This makes it easier to analyze the frequency of occurrence of words, or text.
· Monitor the validity and reliability of code: The next step is to ensure that the code that is designed is valid throughout. Researchers need to ensure that the code set is reliable.
· Analysis and presentation of findings: Researchers review the final findings and arrange information to present it to the audience.
With the help of content analysis, research has become uncomplicated. With a single code, researchers can now analyze a vast ocean of content. Be it a film or an interview, content analysis has made the life of a researcher pain-free.